Vitamins and minerals pdf download
Vitamins and Minerals – Deficiency Diseases
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life. Minerals, being elements, cannot be synthesized biochemically by living organisms. The trace elements that have a specific biochemical function in the human body are sulfur , iron , chlorine , cobalt , copper , zinc , manganese , molybdenum , iodine and selenium. Most chemical elements that are ingested by organisms are in the form of simple compounds. Plants absorb dissolved elements in soils, which are subsequently ingested by the herbivores and omnivores that eat them, and the elements move up the food chain. Larger organisms may also consume soil geophagia or use mineral resources, such as salt licks , to obtain limited minerals unavailable through other dietary sources. Bacteria and fungi play an essential role in the weathering of primary elements that results in the release of nutrients for their own nutrition and for the nutrition of other species in the ecological food chain.
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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks., Vitamin deficiency is the condition of a long-term lack of a vitamin.
Breastfed and formula-fed infants should receive intramuscular vitamin K soon after birth to prevent classic hemorrhagic disease of the newborn strength of recommendation [SOR]: A , systematic review of controlled trials. Routine iron supplementation for all term, healthy, breastfed infants is not proven to be safe or necessary. Healthy, term infants at the highest risk for vitamin D deficiency are those who are breastfeeding and have dark skin or little sun exposure SOR: B , 2 case series. Infants consuming at least mL of fortified formula each day do not need additional supplementation. Infants older than 6 months should receive an oral fluoride supplement of 0. Physicians can help mothers give the best nutrition to their children by encouraging breastfeeding. In most cases, no supplements are required.