Bioremediation principles and applications pdf
Soil and brownfield bioremediationNot a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The key players in bioremediation are bacteria—microscopic organisms that live virtually everywhere. Microorganisms are ideally suited to the task of contaminant destruction because they possess enzymes that allow them to use environmental contaminants as food and because they are so small that they are able to contact contaminants easily. In situ bioremediation can be regarded as an extension of the purpose that microorganisms have served in nature for billions of years: the breakdown of complex human, animal, and plant wastes so that life can continue from one generation to the next. Without the activity of microorganisms, the earth would literally be buried in wastes, and the nutrients necessary for the continuation of life would be locked up in detritus.
Bioremediation : principles and applications
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. November , Cite as. Environmental pollution has been on the rise in the past few decades owing to increased human activities on energy reservoirs, unsafe agricultural practices and rapid industrialization. Amongst the pollutants that are of environmental and public health concerns due to their toxicities are: heavy metals, nuclear wastes, pesticides, green house gases, and hydrocarbons. Remediation of polluted sites using microbial process bioremediation has proven effective and reliable due to its eco-friendly features. Bioremediation can either be carried out ex situ or in situ, depending on several factors, which include but not limited to cost, site characteristics, type and concentration of pollutants. Generally, ex situ techniques apparently are more expensive compared to in situ techniques as a result of additional cost attributable to excavation.
Bioremediation uses microorganisms to degrade organic contaminants in soil, groundwater, sludge, and solids. The microorganisms break down contaminants by using them as an energy source or cometabolizing them with an energy source. More specifically, bioremediation involves the production of energy in a redox reaction within microbial cells. These reactions include respiration and other biological functions needed for cell maintenance and reproduction. A delivery system that provides one or more of the following is generally required: an energy source electron donor , an electron acceptor, and nutrients. Different types of microbial electron acceptor classes can be involved in bioremediation, such as oxygen-, nitrate-, manganese-, iron III -, sulfate-, or carbon dioxide-reducing , and their corresponding redox potentials.
Soil contamination with petroleum hydrocarbons, persistent organic pollutants, halogenated organic chemicals and toxic metal loid s is a serious global problem affecting the human and ecological health. Restoring these sites and regeneration of urban areas in a sustainable way for beneficial uses is a key priority for all industrialized nations. Bioremediation is considered a safe economical, efficient and sustainable technology for restoring the contaminated sites. This brief review presents an overview of bioremediation technologies in the context of sustainability, their applications and limitations in the reclamation of contaminated sites with an emphasis on brownfields. Also, the use of integrated approaches using the combination of chemical oxidation and bioremediation for persistent organic pollutants is discussed. Consequently, several thousands of sites around the world are seriously polluted requiring remediation. Global costs are in the range of — billion Glass, ; Tsao,
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